The USA, Canada and Mexico are aimed at creation of the North American Common Economic Space. The Andean common market as the prospect is considered by Bolivia, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru. Strengthening of interstate integration is characteristic for the countries of Southeast Asia, the Arab world, Africa and Central America.
The majority of the countries including as France and Italy, have restrictions on external economic operations with their currency, that is currencies are partially reversible. In the conditions of partial convertibility reversibility extends only on certain categories of her owners and on separate types of the external economic transactions, the domestic currency exchanges only on some foreign currencies and not by all types of the international payment turn.
Initial change of export, like change of investments, generates chain reaction which decreasing with each subsequent cycle, gives effect of repeated strengthening of initial change. Similar to the animator of investments, the animator of export () is caused by internal processes in the sphere of consumption and can be defined through limit tendency to consumption (MRC) or limit tendency to saving (MRS):
Development of the international division of labor and cooperation goes in parallel with development of economy of the certain country. The natural and acquired advantages existing generally have impact on this process.
Certainly, ascertaining of that fact that exchange rate is formed under influence of supply and demand in itself speaks about the real processes influencing course ratios a little. On supply and demand of foreign currency and consequently, the exchange rate is influenced directly or indirectly by all set of the economic relations of the country, both internal, and external.
So the steady tendency to regional intercountry integration is around the world observed. In the most developed European integration community (EU). In the near future it is supposed to finish creation of "common economic space" within which free movement of goods, services and labor will be carried out.
In other words, if exchange rates are corrected concerning parity of consumer ability, the translation (converting) of money from one currency in another should not cause changes in purchasing power of these means.
The modern world order in many respects is defined by the developed section of the technological power. And as a result, reality of the international specialization there is such division of labor, when on export of the knowledge-intensive goods (in which costs of research and development are great), and also products (the radio electronics, instrument making specialize the developed countries. On export resource-, trudo-and capital-intensive goods which production often pollutes environment, developing countries and certain from them still specialize remain in the conditions of single-crop raw specialization.
The extent of demand for foreign currency is defined by needs of the country for import of goods and services, expenses of tourists, any payments which the country is obliged to make. the sizes of the offer of currency will be defined by volumes of export of the country, loans which the country obtains, etc.
We can analyze import similar to saving function. Let's enter concepts of limit tendency to import (MRM) as change of volume of import to change of the income. And then the formula of the animator will assume an air: